Lutein Zeaxanthin antioxidants for eye health, cataract, macular degeneration research, food sources, risk and side effects - Health benefit of Lutein and Zeaxanthin carotenoids and use for eye disorders
Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids with
potent antioxidant properties. The pigment in the macula
of the eye is composed mostly of lutein and zeaxanthin which is obtained from the diet.
Lutein and zeaxanthin play a crucial role in the eye: these
two carotenoids accumulate in the retina, where they form the macular pigment,
and they are found in the lens.
Lutein and zeaxanthin filter out phototoxic blue light and quench singlet
oxygen, a free radical.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are largely transported in plasma by high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
with high content of lutein and zeaxanthin
Foods rich in lutein and zeaxanthin include spinach, kale, turnip greens, collards, mustard greens, squash, green peas, broccoli, pumpkin, and corn.
Lutein and zeaxanthin for macular
The xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, along with their major metabolites, meso-zeaxanthin, and 3'-oxolutein, are highly concentrated in the human macula. Higher dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin decreases the likelihood of having neovascular AMD, retinal atrophy, and large or extensive intermediate drusen. However, not all studies have found that high dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin is associated with a reduced risk for macular degeneration.
Eating yellow and green vegetables may help people aged 60 and older avoid age-related macular degeneration. About 4,500 people aged 60-80 who were screened for age-related macular degeneration. Participants reported how often they had eaten 90 different foods during the past year. Those foods included yellow and green veggies rich in the nutrients lutein and zeaxanthin. Those with the highest self-reported intake of foods rich in lutein and zeaxanthin were 35 percent less likely than those with the lowest lutein and zeaxanthin intake to have "wet" age-related macular degeneration. "Wet" age-related macula degeneration involves the growth of abnormal blood vessels beneath the macula. Those blood vessels leak blood and fluid, disrupting vision. The study doesn't prove that lutein and zeaxanthin prevent age-related macular degeneration.
Prospective study of lutein/zeaxanthin intake and risk
of age-related macular degeneration 1,2,3
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008. Eunyoung Cho, Susan E Hankinson, Walter C Willett and Graham A Colditz/ 1 From the Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; the Departments of Epidemiology (SEH, BR, WCW), Biostatistics, and Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; and the Department of Surgery and Alvin J Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO
The association between lutein zeaxanthin intake and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk may differ by smoking status, vitamin C and E intakes, and body fatness. The objective was to evaluate the association between lutein zeaxanthin intake and AMD risk by smoking status, intake of antioxidant vitamins, and body fatness. We conducted a prospective follow-up study of 71 494 women and 41 564 men aged ≥50 y and had no diagnosis of AMD or cancer. During up to 18 y of follow-up, we documented 673 incident cases of early AMD and 442 incident cases of neovascular AMD with a visual loss of 20/30 or worse due primarily to AMD. Lutein zeaxanthin intake was not associated with the risk of self-reported early AMD. There was a statistically nonsignificant and nonlinear inverse association between lutein zeaxanthin intake and neovascular AMD risk. For early AMD, the association with lutein zeaxanthin intake did not vary by smoking status, intakes of vitamins C and E, or body mass index. For neovascular AMD, a nonlinear inverse association was found among never smokers. These data do not support a protective role of lutein zeaxanthin intake on risk of self-reported early AMD. The suggestion of inverse associations related to the risk of neovascular AMD needs to be examined further.
Patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome lack macular pigment.
van der Veen RL, Fuijkschot J, Willemsen MA, Theelen T. University Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS), an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder with congenital ichthyosis, spastic diplegia or tetraplegia, and mental retardation, reveals a characteristic macular dystrophy with intraretinal crystals and foveal pseudocysts. Ophthalmic symptoms in SLS are reduced visual acuity and photophobia. This article reports the deficiency of macular pigment as a novel finding in this peculiar, congenital maculopathy. The group of SLS patients studied here had significantly reduced levels of foveal macula pigment. The crystalline macular dystrophy in SLS seems to be the first known disease with a genetically caused deficiency of macular pigment.
Lutein supplement use and pigment
density in the retina
The use of a zeaxanthin and lutein supplement leads to an increase in macular pigment optical density. In one study three subjects consumed 30 mg of lutein and 2.7 mg of zeaxanthin supplement each day for 120 days. At the two most central loci, macular pigment optical density significantly increased in all three subjects with the zeaxanthin and lutein supplement use.
Lutein and zeaxanthin for skin
Mice given a diet with these have less damage to their skin when exposed to UVB-induced photoaging and photocarcinogenesis.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are the main carotenoids in eye tissue, but there are several other carotenoids that are found in the human eye. However, astaxanthin has never been isolated from the human eye, but its chemical structure is very close to that of lutein and zeaxanthin.
Lutein and zeaxanthin supplements
reduce glare in healthy, young adults
Lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoid pigments boost vision in seemingly healthy eyes. Researchers from the Vision Science Laboratory at the University of Georgia, Athens, recruited 40 healthy subjects with an average age of 24 and assigned them to receive daily supplements of lutein 10mg and Zeaxanthin 2 mg for 6 months. The researchers observed the effects of glare as encountered in daily situations ranging from being outside on bright, sunny days, to prolonged periods looking at computer monitors, and nighttime exposure to the beam of oncoming headlights, on the participant's eyes. Macular pigment optical density, an indicator of the eye's ability to filter short wave light, was measured and increased from an average value of 0.41 at the start of the study, to 0.57 after six months of supplementation. Volunteers were also assessed for performance in visual tasks following exposure to glare before and after the supplementation period. There was a significant correlation between lutein and xeaxanthin supplementation and improved visual performance under glare conditions.
Review and summary
Lutein and zeaxanthin are members of the oxygenated carotenoids found particularly in egg yolks and dark-green leafy vegetables. A great deal of research has focused on their beneficial roles in eye health. Current evidence demonstrates that lutein and zeaxanthin are widely distributed in a number of body tissues and are uniquely concentrated in the retina and lens, indicating that each has a possible specific function in these two vital ocular tissues. Most of epidemiological studies and clinical trials support the notion that these carotenoids have a potential role in the prevention and treatment of certain eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, cataract and retinitis pigmentosa. The biological mechanisms for the protective effects of these carotenoids may include powerful blue-light filtering activities and antioxidant properties.
Lutein zeaxanthin raw material
November 2007 - Cognis Nutrition and Health is launching its new Super Xangold, with a 5 to 1 ratio of lutein esters and zeaxanthin esters. This is the identical ratio of ingredients being used in the landmark Age Related Eye Disease Study II (AREDS II). Super Xangold is a proprietary blend of natural lutein esters and zeaxanthin esters. The macular pigment is made up almost entirely of these carotenoids and is located at the center of the retina, at the site of highest visual acuity.
Q. Can you please tell me the quantity of lutein and zeaxanthin in the Eyesight Rx formula?
A. Eyesight Rx is a proprietary blend and we are not allowed to reveal the dosages of lutein, zeaxanthin, or the other herbs. Many companies copy formulations made by Dr. Sahelian and for this reason it is kept a proprietary blend.
Q. I would like to add Eyesight Rx
to my regular use of supplements. I have age related macular degeneration. I
take 10 mg of lutein plus zeaxanthin 400µg and most of the AREDS formula on a
daily basis. If I am to add Eyesight Rx, then I will need to know the amounts of
lutein and zeaxanthin in the formula plus anything that would influence the
A. We cannot divulge the amounts of lutein, zeaxanthin or other herbs and nutrients in this eyesight formula, but we can say that on the days that you take Eyesight Rx, you would not need to take the other supplements for eyesight improvement. We suggest using Eyesight Rx only three times a week, and on the other days your other eyesight supplements can be taken.
supplement is more specific to the eye,
astaxanthin or zeaxanthin?
Zeaxanthin is found in much higher amounts in the retina than most other carotenoids except for lutein.
Lutein Zeaxanthin supplement for eye
Nordic Naturals has a supplement called Ultimate DHA Eye, a synergistic blend of purified fish oil, providing a high concentration of DHA in combination with the important eye nutrients, Lutein and Zeaxanthin. Each of these eye nutrients plays a distinct role in protecting the eyes and supporting healthy vision and scientific investigations have shown that these three nutrients work in synergy. The Lutein Zeaxanthin DHA supplement is available in 60 soft gels and does not contain gluten, yeast, milk derivatives, or artificial colors and flavors. According to Dr. Douglas MacKay, Nordic Naturals Research Advisor, “Eye tissue has a unique biochemical demand for the omega-3 fats, EPA and DHA from fish oil because these fats are highly concentrated within the cells of the eye and are necessary to maintain healthy structure and function of ocular tissue. We have added Lutein and Zeaxanthin to provide protective pigment for the delicate light-absorbing ocular cells.”
Ultimate DHA Eye provides a blend of nutrients that have been shown to:
Support the development and maintenance of eye tissue
Protect ocular cells from oxidative stress
Support healthy vision and tissue moisture
Slow the progression of age-related eye disorders
Complimentary Live Webinar - May,
Join Elizabeth J. Johnson, Ph.D., a leading researcher in the area of nutrition and eye disease prevention at Tufts University, for a discussion on the role of lutein and zeaxanthin, separately and in combination, in promoting healthy vision. Webinar attendees will:* Learn about the role of lutein and zeaxanthin in promoting healthy vision* Receive an overview of recently published science supporting the benefits of these carotenoids in eye health* Discover the importance and clinical support for using a combination of both lutein and zeaxanthin isomers in finished products* Learn how lutein and zeaxanthin isomers can be used in a wide-variety of dietary supplement, food and beverage applications* Receive a brief overview of Lutemax 2020 - a single source ingredient that delivers lutein and zeaxanthin isomers in significantly higher concentrations, for convenient and more beneficial nutrient availability for the eyes. About Our Presenter: Elizabeth J. Johnson, Ph.D, is a research scientist at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging and assistant professor at the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University. Her research interests are in the area of nutrition and eye disease prevention, with a specific focus on carotenoids and age-related macular degeneration. Other interests include the role of nutrition and cognition and skin health. She has been involved in numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies and has collaborations with academia, industry and government agencies. Dr. Johnson has membership with the International Carotenoid Society and American Society for Nutritional Sciences. Major committee assignments include, NIH/NIDDK Scientific Review Group, Donahue Foundation Scientific Advisory Board Member, Carotenoid Research Interactive Group, USDA: 1890 Capacity Building Grant Review Group, Macular and Nutrition Group, and NIH: Biology of Development and Aging SBIR/STTR Scientific Review Group