Lutein research animal and human studies - esters
The popularity of Lutein supplements keep increasing, either lutein by itself, or combined with zeaxanthin and other carotenoids, herbs, and vitamins for the prevention of visual disorders such as macular degeneration or to help support healthy eyesight. Lutein plays an important role in the eye: it accumulates in the retina, where it forms the macular pigment, and it is also found the lens.
Lutein supplement, 20 mg
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Lutein is a potent antioxidant carotenoid found in abundance in fruits and green leafy vegetables. Lutein is also one of the dominant pigments found in the macular region of the retina. In the macula, lutein is selectively accumulated from plasma and filters out visible blue light. Recent studies suggest this filtering process serves to protect the retina from damage caused by light or oxidation. This Lutein product is extracted from the marigold flower.
- More than lutein for vision
Mesozeaxanthin may be another macular pigment that could be helpful.
Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2007. Bone RA, Howard AN, Alvarez-Calderon F. Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a meso-zeaxanthin supplement in raising macular pigment density in human subjects. A 120 day supplementation study was conducted in which 10 subjects were given gel-caps that provided 20 mg/day of predominantly meso-zeaxanthin, with smaller amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin. A second group of 9 subjects were given gel caps containing a placebo for the same 120 day period. The researchers found for the first time that a meso-zeaxanthin supplement is absorbed into the serum following ingestion. A supplement containing predominantly meso-zeaxanthin is generally effective at raising macular pigment density, and may turn out to be a useful addition to the defenses against age related macular degeneration.
- Lutein for immune system
Lutein prevents the effect of high glucose levels on immune system cells in vivo and in vitro.
J Physiol Biochem. 2008. Muriach M, Bosch-Morell F, Arnal E, Romero FJ. Dept. Fisiología, Farmacología & Toxicología, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Valencia, Spain.
Diabetic patients present an increased susceptibility to frequent and protracted infections. The recognition of an impaired immune system has implications for the diagnosis, treatment and outcome of infections. Our results show that high glucose induces oxidative stress in immune system cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Llutein, a natural antioxidant without blood sugar lowering properties, is able to prevent all the alterations observed. Thus, this study confirms the role of oxidative stress in the immune system impairment described in diabetes, and allows the proposal of antioxidants for the clinical management of the diabetes-associated susceptibility to infections.
Lutein in marigold herb
Phenolic, Flavonoid, and Lutein Ester Content and Antioxidant Activity of 11 Cultivars of Chinese Marigold.
J Agric Food Chem. 2007;
This study analyzed 11 Chinese cultivars of marigold to determine their major phytochemical contents and antixodant activities. Dried marigold flowers were extracted with ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane and the extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemical methods to determine their lutein esters, phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity, respectively. The different cultivars of marigold showed considerable variations in their lutien ester contents, ranging from 161.0 to 611.0 mg/100 g of flower (dry basis). The lutein esters in marigolds consisted predominantly of six all trans-diesters, but small amounts of cis isomers of the respective diesters were also present. The cultivar Xinhong had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents and radical-scavenging activity, as well as one of the highest lutein contents and antioxidant activities.
Changes in the Main Nutrients, Phytochemicals, and
Antioxidant Activity in Yellow Corn Grain during Maturation.
J Agric Food Chem. 2010. College of Engineering.
Immature corn grains are becoming increasingly popular as a snack/vegetable, facilitating human consumption in some countries. Of particular interest were their nutritional and functional properties. Therefore, plants at stages M1 (74 DAS), M2 (86 DAS), M3 (98 DAS), and maturity stage (116 DAS), where DAS refers to days after seeding, were investigated for changes of the nutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activity in corn grains during maturation. Results revealed that during maturation of corn grains, the content of reducing sugar and crude protein decreased while starch and total lipids increased (p < 0.05). Total carotenoids first decreased, then increased, and then decreased to minimum at maturity stage. Analysis of the main carotenoid compounds determined by HPLC showed that lutein first increased and then decreased (p < 0.05), whereas the reverse was found for beta-cryptoxanthin. The change in zeaxanthin was consistent with total carotenoids. Total phenolic content decreased; nevertheless, different phenolic fractions varied with various maturation stages. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and FRAP assay in total phenolic extracts decreased during maturation, which may explain that antioxidant activity can be attributed to soluble phenolic and total phenolic content.